National

Women Laws in India:


The best way to understand the spirit of a civilisation and its excellence is to study the history of women. In India, feminine glory was at its zenith in the vedic period, after which it suffered a decline. After independence, the country enshrined not only the noble principles of equality, liberty and social justice but also provided for benign discrimination in favour of women in the Constitution of the country. The constitutional mandate was followed by the legislative intent being expressed in the form of various enactments which were passed to protect the rights and uphold the dignity of women.

 

  1. Family Court Act, 1984
  2. THE ARYA MARRIAGE VALIDATION ACT-1
  3. The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987
  4. The Dowry Prohibition act 1961
  5. The Hindu Widow Re-marriage Act, 1856
  6. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
  7. The Indecent Representation (Prohibition) Act, 1986
  8. The Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872
  9. The Maternity Benefits Act, 1961
  10. THE MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY ACT, 1971
  11. The Muslim Personal Law (Sharita) Application Act, 1937
  12. THE PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES (PROHIBITION OF SEX-SECTION) Act, 1994
  13. The protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

 

Hindu Widow's Re-marriage Act, 1856

Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 in British India prohibiting enforced widowhood practiced mainly among Brahmans, legalised the validity of Hindu widow remarriage.

Source: http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/pdf_part.php?id=9


THE INDIAN CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE ACT, 1872

An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the solemnization in India of the marriages of Christians. It is expedient to consolidate and amend the law relating to the solemnization in India of the marriages of persons professing the Christian religion.

Source:http://indianchristians.in/news/images/resources/pdf/indian_christian_marriage_act_1872.pdf


THE ARYA MARRIAGE VALIDATION ACT, 1937

It extends to the whole of India except [ the territories which, immediately before the 1st November, 1956 , were comprised in Part B States] and applies also to citizens of India wherever they may be.

Source: http://www.legalhelpindia.com/bareacts/THE ARYA MARRIAGE VALIDATION ACT.doc



The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937

An Act to make provision for the application of the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) to Muslims.Whereas it is expedient to make provision for the application of the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) to Muslims.

Source:http://www.cwds.ac.in/library/collection/elib/legal_resources/lr_the_muslim_personal_law.pdf

THE IMMORAL TRAFFIC (PREVENTION) ACT, 1956

The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 an Act to provide in pursuance of the International Convention signed at New York on the 9th day of May, 1950....

Source: http://ncpcr.gov.in/Acts/Immoral_Traffic_Prevention_Act_(ITPA)_1956.pdf

The Dowry Prohibition Act. 1961

An Act to prohibit the giving or taking of dowry. If any person, after the commencement of this Act, gives or takes or abets the giving or taking of dowry, he shall be punishable with imprisonment .

Source: http://wcd.nic.in/dowryprohibitionact.htm


MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961

An Act to regulate the employment of women in certain establishment for certain period before and after child-birth and to provide for maternity benefit and certain other benefits.

Source:http://pblabour.gov.in/pdf/acts_rules/maternity_benefit_act_1961.pdf



Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 - THE MEDICAL ...

An Act to provide for the termination of certain pregnancies by registered medical practitioners and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Source: http://www.mp.gov.in/health/mtp Act.pdf


The Family Court Act, 1984 - ::Ministry of Home Affairs::

The Family Courts are established in India with a view to amicably settle family disputes. For speedy disposal of disputes concerning family matters, the Parliament enacted the Family Court Act, 1984 in the 35 th year of the Republic of India.

Source: http://www.mha.nic.in/pdfs/TheFamilyCourtsAct,1984.pdf


Indecent Representation of Women Act, 1986

An Act to prohibit indecent representation of women through advertisements or in publications, writings, paintings, figures or in any other manner and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Source: http://wcd.nic.in/irwp.htm


The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act,1987

An Act to provide for the more effective prevention of the commission of sati and its glorification and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto, whereas sati or the burning or burying alive of widows or women is revolting to the feelings of human nature and is nowhere enjoined by any of the religions of India as an imperative duty.

Source:http://wcd.nic.in/commissionofsatiprevention.htm


THE PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES (PROHIBITION OF SEX-SECTION) Act, 1994

An Act to provide for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception, and for regulation of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purposes of detecting genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities or certain congenital malformations or sex-linked disorders and for the prevention of their misuse for sex determination leading to female foeticide; and, for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Source:http://www.indg.in/social-sector/social-awareness/stop-female-infanticide/pcpndt-act-2.pdf


THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT, 2005

An Act to provide for more effective protection of the rights of women guaranteed under the Constitution who are victims of violence of any kind occurring within the family and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Source:http://mahilaayog.maharashtra.gov.in/new/pdf/domestic_voilence_act_05.pdf


Vishaka and others V. State of Rajasthan and others.

The Vishaka judgement provides the basic definition of sexual harassment at the workplace, it was given by the Supreme Court on the 13th august 1997. In the case of Vishaka and Ors Vs. State of Rajasthan and Ors. (JT 1997 (7) SC 384), the Hon’ble Supreme Court has laid down guidelines and norms to be observed to prevent sexual harassment of working women.

Source: www.iiap.res.in/files/VisakaVsRajasthan_1997.pdf

National Policy for the Empowerment of Women (2001)

The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women.Within the framework of a democratic polity, our laws, development policies, Plans and programmes have aimed at women’s advancement in different spheres. From the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-78) onwards has been a marked shift in the approach to women’s issues from welfare to development. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The National Commission for Women was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard the rights and legal entitlements of women. The 73rd and 74th Amendments (1993) to the Constitution of India have provided for reservation of seats in the local bodies of Panchayats and Municipalities for women, laying a strong foundation for their participation in decision making at the local levels.

 

Source: http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Policy_Empowerment-of-Women.pdf

 



Draft Bill  The Protection Against Sexual Harassment of  Women  Bill 2010
The Union Cabinet approved the introduction of the Protection of Women against Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill, 2010 in the Parliament to ensure a safe environment for women at work places, both in public and private sectors whether organised or unorganized. The measure will help in achieving gender empowerment and equality. The proposed Bill, if enacted, will ensure that women are protected against sexual harassment at all the work places, be it in public or private. This will contribute to realisation of their right to gender equality, life and liberty and equality in working conditions everywhere. The sense of security at the workplace will improve women’s participation in work, resulting in their economic empowerment and inclusive growth.

Source: http://ncw.nic.in/PDFFiles/sexualharassmentatworkplacebill2005_Revised.pdf
http://www.achrweb.org/reports.htm, Reports

 

 

Department of Women and Child Development


In 1985, the Department of Women and Child Development was set up as a parte of the Ministry of Human resource Development. On January 30, 2006, it has been upgraded to a ministry. Now, itbis working as a nodal Ministry for the advancement of women and children, the Ministry formulates plans, policies and programmes; enacts/ amends legislation, guides and coordinates the efforts of both governmental and non-governmental organisations working in the field of Women and Child Development. Besides, playing its nodal role, the Ministry implements certain innovative programmes for women and children that cover welfare and support services, training for employment and income generation, awareness generation and gender sensitization. Annual reports regarding the women and children are also published by it.
Source: http://wcd.nic.in/

 

National Bal Bhawan

The vision of the National Bal Bhavan is to develop creative thinking among children through non-formal educational activities which will inculcate in them confidence, self reliance, secular attitude and love for values that, in turn, will make our nation stronger. The National Bal Bhavan is an institution which aims at enhancing the creative potential of children by providing them with various activities, opportunities and a common platform to interact, experiment, create and perform according to their age, aptitude and ability. It offers a barrier-free environment with immense possibilities of innovation, minus any stress or strain.

Source: http://www.nationalbalbhavan.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=318&langid=1

 

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