Child Laws in India:
In the 21st century, when we Indians are busy in counting our economic and political success both at national and international level, still much is needed to be done to improve the status of children in India for the coming future. India has 375 million children, more than any other country in the world. Their condition has improved in the last five decades, with child survival rates up, school dropout rates down, and several policy commitments were made by the government at the national and international levels. India has made some significant commitments towards ensuring the basic rights of children. However, many things are still needed to be done to improve the survival and health care needs of infants and children, their education, development and protection. Since the Independence of India; we have seen committed efforts of Indian government for the protection of child rights in India at all levels. There are various constitutional and legal provisions providing for policies beneficial to the rights of children.
- CHILD LABOUR (PROHIBITION AND REGULATION) ACT 1986
- CHILD MARRIAGE RESTRAINT ACT 1929
- CHILDREN ACT, 1960
- CHILDREN (PLEDGING OF LABOUR) ACT 1933
- COMMISSIONS FOR PROTECTION OF CHILD RIGHTS ACT 2005
- COMMISSIONS FOR PROTECTION OF CHILD RIGHTS (AMENDMENT) ACT 2006
- INFANT MILK SUBSTITUTES ACT, 1992
- INFANT MILK SUBSTITUTES ACT, 2003
- INFANT MILK SUBSTITUTES, FEEDING BOTTLES AND INFANT FOODS(REGULATION OF PRODUCTION, SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION) ACT 1992
- INFANT MILK SUBSITITUTES, FEEDING BOTTLES & INFANT FOODS (Regulation of Production, Supply & Distribution) Amendment Act, 2003
- JUVENILE JUSTICE (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000
- JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) AMENDMENT ACT 2006
- PROHIBITION OF CHILD MARRIAGE ACT 2006
- REFORMATORY SCHOOLS ACT 1897
- THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT, 1986
- YOUNG PERSONS (HARMFUL PUBLICATIONS) ACT 1956
THE REFORMATORY SCHOOLS ACT, 1897 ACT NO. 8 OF 1897, an Act to amend the law relating to Reformatory Schools and to make further provisions for dealing with youthful offenders. Whereas it is expedient to amend the law relating to Reformatory Schools and to make further provision for dealing with youthful offenders.
The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, was enacted with a view to prevent child marriages, namely, a marriage to which either of the contracting parties is under a specified age. Originally, the age limit for a male was eighteen years and for a female fourteen years. The age limit was subsequently raised in the case of females from fourteen to fifteen by the Amending Act 41 of 1949. Violation of the provisions of the Act is made punishable.
An Act to prohibit the pledging of the labour of children. WHEREAS it is expedient to prohibit the making of agreements to pledge the labour of children, and the employment of children whose labour has been pledged.
The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956, an Act to prevent the dissemination of certain publications harmful to young persons. It defines "Harmful publication" means any book, magazine, pamphlet, leaflet, newspaper) or other like publication which consists of stories told with the aid of pictures or without the aid of pictures or wholly in pictures, being stories portraying wholly or mainly.
Source: http://www.mha.nic.in/pdfs/Young_Persons_Harmful Publication_ Act1956.pdf
An Act to provide for the care, protection, maintenance, welfare, training, education and rehabilitation of neglected or delinquent children and for the trial of delinquent children in the Union territories.
Source: http://www.sdobishnupur.in/Acts and Rules/Dictionery/0316.pdf
An Act to prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employments. It regulates the conditions of work of children.
The juvenile Justice Act 1986 provides government guidance for the rehabilitation of Juvenile delinquents. Main purposes of the Juvenile Justice Act is to provide fair and adequate rehabilitation for youths in the criminal justice system. This includes fair treatment, access to counseling and other necessary tools, and investigation into the home environment to ensure that proper care is being taken to give the child an environment suitable for rehabilitation.
Source: http://www.icf.gov.in/rpf/linkpage/THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT.pdf
The Infant Milk Substitutes Act (IMS) seeks to promote breast-feeding by curbing unethical marketing and promotional practices which denigrate mother’s milk or interfere with breast-feeding. Insofar as food standards and safety issues are concerned, the IMS Act leaves those to be regulated by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA).
THE JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) ACT, 2000 ACT NO. 56 OF 2000, consolidate and amend the law relating to juveniles in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection, by providing for proper care, protection and treatment by catering to their development needs, and by adopting a child-frien ly approach in the adjudication and disposition of matters in the best interest of children and for their ultimate rehabilitation through various institutions established under this enactment.
An Act to amend the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infants Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992. It provides for the regulation of production, supply and distribution of infant milk substitutes, feeding bottles and infant foods with a view to the protection and promotion of breastfeeding and ensuring the proper use of infant foods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
The Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament, under this act the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March 2007.
Source: http://wcd.nic.in/The Gazette of India.pdf
It enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-seventh Year of the Republic of India to amend the the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
THE JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) AMENDMENT ACT, 2006, an act to amend the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000. Amendment of long title. - In the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in the long title, for the words “through various institutions established under this enactment”, the words “and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto” shall be substituted.
The Act lays emphasis on the prohibition of child marriages by providing for the appointment of Child Marriage Prohibition Officers by the State Governments and gives powers to these Officers to prevent and prosecute solemnization of child marriages and to create awareness on the issue.
Schemes Deciding the Norms of Child Nutrition In India: The Ministry of Women and Child Development has come up with several schemes deciding the norms of child nutrition. These are: